It astonished the whole international community of experts on the ancient world. Fundamental investigations have only been carried since the 1950s. is not completely ruled out. By adding a comment, I agree to this site’s Terms of use. The Antikythera Mechanism is simply a later version of the Archimedes design. The Roman-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus quotes the vassal king of Judah, Herod Agrippa II, remarking that North Africa fed Rome for eight months of the year, while Egypt sent enough grain to support the city for the other four. Preliminary examination of the skeletons show they originated from the Aegean region, and some were apparently well off, being found in proximity to gold jewellery and silver coins. Like the first wreck, the second one is also scattered its bits and cargo down a steep slope, extending from 35 meters below sea level to more than 55m. 17. Copyright held by author/owner. Request permission to publish from permissions@acm.org. The wealthy roman Cicero, who by the way was a close friend of Lucullus', sent out a curator to procure statues for his villas and mansions. Christián Carman, James Evans, and Tony Freeth assume a production approximately 205 B.C. So, one would guess that similar mechanical devices might date from 200 B.C. For this reason, the Egyptian calendar scale was manually adjustable to allow different alignments with the Sun's apparent motion through the zodiac. The best candidate must be Rhodes, a port at which the Antikythera ship had called (judged by some of its cargo) not long before its wreck. For a long time, the purpose of the Antikythera Mechanism—a bronze gearwork in a wooden case—was unknown. They found it, with its cargo scattered down a 55-meter downward slope, and also found the remains of a sixth person who had gone down with the ship. Bronze disk unearthed by archaeologists in same wreck where original 2,200-year-old computer had been found; also located bits of the ship that Jacques Cousteau and looters hadn't destroyed. In Roman times the greatest imperial ships were grain freighters, with a capacity of 340 tons. As in the collection of taxes, the government found it easier to outsource the work. Two were discovered when Italian dictator Benito Mussolini had the lake drained in the 1930s and divers have since been searching for a possible third. Interestingly, the two spears are different in style: one is armor-piercing and the other is lightweight. It was discovered by sponge divers off Point Glyphadia on the Greek island of Antikythera in 1900.. The customer is likely to be from Epirus due to the epirotic calendar (Metonic spiral).16, Cicero mentions in De Natura Deorum, book 2, (45 B.C. The structure of the Metonic dial "was very unusual, having two distinct centers. Palgrave Commun. Personal communication, (U.K., Nov. 22, 2017). This fine, fragile construction may explain why hardly any devices have survived. Anyway, in 60 B.C.E., after an illustrious career in pursuing war, Lucullus retired to a spectacular villa that he had built along the bay of Naples, which he decorated with paintings and sculptures collected during his many military campaigns. Scanning shows the encrusted cogwheel to bear an image of Taurus the bull. Documentary about the Antikythera Mechanism, a 2,000-year-old object now regarded as the world's oldest computer, found by divers excavating an ancient Roman shipwreck in 1901. 12. For a list of Haaretz newsletters, click here. Many of the pieces have been named and functions have been attributed them.The calendar scale represents a 360-day year and is divided into 1… Michael Edmunds, Paul Iversen, Alexander Jones, and Michael Wright however believe in a much later production at a time when the ship was much closer to sinking. The Antikythera mechanism and the mechanical universe. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, 3rd edition, 2020; https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783030409739. Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) knew gears, as his drawings show. However, the bronze and marble statuary, albeit life-size, occupy a lot of space for their volume. They commissioned thousands of ships to bring them treasures from territories around the eastern Mediterranean. When was the astronomical calculator built? One of the oldest known astronomical calculating devices is called the Antikythera Mechanism. Herbert Bruderer (bruderer@retired.ethz.ch; herbert.bruderer@bluewin.ch) is a retired lecturer in computer science at ETH Zürich; more recently, he has been a historian of technology and was co-organizer of the International Turing Conference at ETH Zürich in 2012. Tomographic methods were also used for this purpose. The most likely explanation is that the designer of these displays drew on old information. However, the ships were hired by the State. We will call one of them the axial center because this was the location of the axle or arbor bearing the dial's pointer ... On the right side of the plate, a series of five concentric semicircular slots ... were cut through the plate. Who made the Antikythera Mechanisms remains a mystery. 10. 1. The mechanism was retrieved from a shipwreck found off the coast of the Greek island of Antikythera in 1901. According to Wright, however, the mechanism of Archimedes was a completely different device, namely a mechanical celestial globe. Antikythera Mechanism discovered in shipwreck 115 years ago The find was retrieved from a shipwreck off the coast of the Greek island Antikythera more than a century ago. 18. Speaking of unsuspected technological prowess, recent X-ray imaging of a bronze statue discovered in the Antikythera wreck by Cousteau’s team in 1976 revealed a mechanical device inside its circular base, that apparently rotated the statue when a key was turned. Above are shown the hands for sun, moon and five planets, below four astronomical cycles and the course of the Panhellenic games (courtesy of Jian-Liang Lin and Hong-Sen Yan). Diver lifting amphora that possibly contained wine or perfume from Antikythera wreck. Another find with the Antikythera wreck is a "dolphin" - a 100-kilo lead bulb tipped with an iron spike. The dial with the Callippic cycle (76 years) is not actually preserved. Some scholars suggest that the Antikýthera cargo was one of Lucullus' loot ships. It was discovered in 1902 in a shipwreck off the coast of Antikythera, Greece. Dives were also carried out in 1953, 1972, and several since 2012 up to the present year. The stoic philosopher had no astronomical or craft skills himself. The ANTIKYTHERA MECHANISM This curious mechanical device is often described as the World’s first analogue computer was retrieved by sponge divers off the coast of Antikythera in or around 1900AD. Astronomical clocks are also hybrid, as are digital clocks with analog display. It certainly was good for demonstrations. In Switzerland, the Mechanism was also reconstructed, for example by Ludwig Oechslin (formerly International Watch Museum in La Chaux-de-Fonds). In addition to the input, the output of this machine is also analog: the dials (scales) and the continuously rotating hands. The discovery of the mysterious technological marvel was a big surprise. Planimeters and (mechanical) differential analyzers were sophisticated. Wright, the leading model maker of Antikythera Mechanism, justly points out that a computer-generated 3D image does not have the same persuasive power as a physical model. 3D Solidforms sells the devices developed in cooperation with the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. when a Roman merchant ship sank in the Mediterranean Sea. This video series documents a reconstruction of The Antikythera Mechanism in its most authentic form to date, with the intention of establishing the precise machining tools, techniques and technology used to create it. In Proceedings of From Antikythera to the Square Kilometre Array: Lessons from the Ancients Conference (Kerastari, Greece, June 12–15, 2012). The missing piece of the Antikythera Mechanism, found on the Aegean sea floor. As for the ship bearing the Mechanism, it had been a huge one, laden with precious cargo. This illustration shows the front side of the reconstruction by Markos Skoulatos and is fully functional (courtesy of Markos Skoulatos). They are mentioned in the Doric not Attic-Ionic dialect, the latter of which is customary on the rest of the Mechanism. The first mechanical calculating machines were invented in the 17th century (Wilhelm Schickard, Blaise Pascal, Gottfried Leibniz). Around 70 B.C.E, when the Antikýthera ship sailed, the senatorial class, who had become the nouveau riche of the time, loved to decorate their villas with Greek artworks. Why astronomical calculators have rarely survived? The mathematician Freeth, on the other hand, assumes the original form of the astronomical computer originated from Archimedes. Due to this similarity, the mechanical calendar computer appears as an analog device. Figure 9. The development of such astronomical instruments apparently began in the 3rd century B.C. When did the ship go down? Today Lucullus is better known for his lavish dining habits than his military skills, thanks to a few funny anecdotes by Plutarch, who wrote his biography with his tongue rammed firmly into his cheek. Our current knowledge of the Antikytera mechanism. Michael Edmunds from the University of Cardiff writes: "The present best estimate of its construction date is around the middle of the range 150 B.C.—60 B.C.—although a date as early as early as 220 B.C. This device, found in the Antikythera Shipwreck, named the Antikythera mechanism, is considered the oldest computer in the world. Astrolabe, Planetarium, or Calendar Calculator? Figure 14. But merchant ships could run to 1,300 tons, possibly more. It is mainly made up of experts from the fields of astronomy, physics, astrophysics, mathematics, engineering, history of technology and science, archaeology, and classicists. Copyright © 2020 by the ACM. X-ray analysis shows the disk to bear the engraving of Taurus the bull. Freeth writes: "I personally think it is likely that the original design came from Archimedes and he started the tradition of making these devices. But the most sophisticated thing the mechanism did was the lunar calculations! and 50 B.C. Metal was precious and was therefore recycled. Jacques Cousteau looking at a salvaged bronze figurine, Israelites in biblical Dan worshipped idols – and Yahweh too, archaeologists discover, Huge if true: The archaeological case for Goliath, Treasure, skulls in 3,300-year-old Transylvania tomb were from nymph cult, archaeologists suggest, Before Herzl, there was Pastor Russell: A neglected chapter of Zionism, Morocco to Israel: Normalization Pact Not Part of Trump-brokered Abraham Accords, Arab Voters, Biden and COVID: The Factors That Will Determine Israel's Next Election, Israel's Health Minister: Lockdown Is Only Way to Curb Surging COVID Infection Rates, How Two Lawmakers Hiding in the Knesset Parking Garage Sealed the Government's Fate, Israel Is Being Dragged Into Elections Again, but This Time It's a Whole New Ballgame. The Antikythera Mechanism was discovered in 1901, technically speaking. This question has been resolved today, unlike many others. Assessments based on its functions in predicting the behavior of the cosmos range from 37 to over 70. Figure 4. Come 2012, a new team, led by Dr. Brendan Foley of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (and after 2017, Lund University), returned to the waters by Antikythera to relocate and resurvey the original wreck site, armed with the latest technologies. In the 1970s, more than two decades after his first survey of the site, Cousteau and his team salvaged some hull bits, including planks, Dr. Brendan Foley of Lund University told Haaretz. Wright, M.T. Bruderer, H. Milestones in Analog and Digital Computing. I suggest that it was probably built with a generation or so of its loss; that is, within a few decades of 100 B.C.20, The physicist James Evans from the University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, tends to assume an early production: "The eclipse predictor best fits an 18-year Saros cycle that started in 205 B.C. The machine also showed the data for the four Panhellenic games (the Isthmia, Olympia, Nemea, and Pyhtia) as well as the minor Naa of Dodona and Halieia of Rhodes. to at least 500 A.D. Figure 2. Freeth, T. Eclipse prediction on the ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine known as the Antikythera Mechanism. Figure 8. The estimates range from 205 B.C. Thousands of seagoing vessels, probably including the Antikýthera ships, were involved in supplying grain to that city. "17 The vessel may have been on its way from Asia Minor to the western Mediterranean. Happily, even a century of looters and incautious explorers who combed the site since the ship's original discovery didn't find everything. Discovering the Antikythera Mechanism . The sophisticated state of the mechanism was a surprise. The Ionian island of Antikythera, originally called Aigila, is located between the Peloponnese peninsula and Crete, opposite Kythera (hence Antikythera). The mechanism is so mature that it can hardly be a unique device. Scientists all agree that the ANTIKYTHERA MECHANISM is real and that it dates the the 2nd century BC … It would take decades and advanced x-ray technology for scientists to realize that the "rock" was a wondrously advanced sophisticated analog calculator consisting of dozens of intermeshed gears. A 2,000-year-old computer called the Antikythera Mechanism helped the ancient Greeks understand their universe. Sign in The exterior surface of the hull was sheathed with thin sheets of lead. "16, Jones shares a similar opinion: "A far simpler hypothesis, however, is that the Mechanism was made somewhere around the Aegean not long before the shipwreck and was on its way to its intended home by a route that would next have proceeded up the Adriatic toward, say, Brundisium, stopping somewhere along the way to deliver part of the cargo. The grain fleets were privately owned by Greeks, Phoenicians, and Syrians, who commanded and equipped them. For comparison, the most advanced Swiss watches have four cogwheels. A Portable Cosmos. Edmunds, M.G. 6. This is evidenced by writings written during this period. This picture shows the help menu for the rear side (courtesy of Markos Skoulatos and Georg Brandl). At this time, Geminos, who in his treatise explains the astronomical theory underlying the gearwork, probably also worked on this island. Personal communication (England, U.K., Nov. 22, 2017). Der versunkene Schatz. Antikythera Mechanism, proposing instead that it is a 354-day lunar calendar. All rights reserved. It will be difficult to prove what exactly the Taurus disk is: part of the original Antikythera Mechanism, part of a second such mechanism, if one existed, or something else entirely. This article is based on an international survey among the leading specialists for the Antikythera Mechanism and an adaptation of a chapter of the book on the history of computing by the author and its English translation.3,4,5 For more explanation, see the sidebar "Structure of the Antikythera Mechanism.". In other words, the ship needs to be weighted down. There are numerous physical and virtual replicas. Sicily was once thought to be the place of production, current thinking puts Rhodes as the likely location. Your comment was successfully submitted and will be published in The client for the teaching material seems to be a person in northwestern Greece. This picture shows the help menu for the front side (courtesy of Markos Skoulatos and Georg Brandl). The Antikythera wreck (Greek: Ναυάγιο των Αντικυθήρων) is a Roman-era shipwreck dating from the second quarter of the first century BC.. Jones, A.R. A group of Greek sponge divers found the mechanism … 5. Metal hawse hole from the Antikythera wreck. Almost certainly the machine contains over 40 individual gears (including any plausible reconstruction of the lost planetary gearwork). Evans J.C. However, some replicas are not operational and differ from the original design. However lofty their fares, since the ships were principally for cargo, the passengers were secondary. Arming the merchant’s fleet with dolphins was one way to protect your investment. Computer-aided simulation of the front side by Tony Freeth (courtesy of Tony Freeth, Images First Ltd., London). The gear trains refer to the orbits of the planets. "17, Michael Wright (formerly of the Science Museum, London): "There is, however, no good argument for suggesting that the instrument was designed that early [205 B.C.] and 60 B.C. Like the original Antikythera Mechanism, after nearly 2,100 years underwater, the disk resembled greenish rock. to join the conversation. Fragments of the ancient Antikythera Mechanism Credit: Reuters What do we know about it? The Mechanism could do not only basic math: with dozens of exquisitely worked cogwheels, it could calculate the movements of the sun and moon, predict eclipses and equinoxes, and could be used to track the solar system planets, the constellations, and much more. Derek J. de Solla Price (1922–1983) with a model of the Antikythera mechanism. The Antikythera mechanism is a mechanical calculator. The transparent model allows one to follow the functioning of the mechanism (courtesy of Markos Skoulatos). Haaretz.com provides extensive and in-depth coverage of Israel, the Jewish World and the Middle East, including defense, diplomacy, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the peace process, Israeli politics, Jerusalem affairs, international relations, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, the Palestinian Authority, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Israeli business world and Jewish life in Israel and the Diaspora. According to a description penned in the second century C.E., the Alexandrian grain carrier Isis was over 55 meters long, about 14m wide, had a hold some 13m deep, and could probably carry over a thousand tons of grain as well, perhaps, as a few hundred passengers. The device determines the approximate position of the sun, the moon and—as can be inferred from the texts on the device—possibly the (five then known) planets and serves as a calendar. Bruderer, H. Meilensteine der Rechentechnik I. Mechanische Rechenmaschinen-Rechenschieber - historische Automaten - wissenschaftliche Instrumente. de Gruyter Oldenbourg, Berlin/Boston, 2018; https://www.degruyter.com/view/product/480555. Sidebar: Structure of the Antikythera Mechanism, Tech Execs Urge Washington to Accelerate AI Adoption for National Security, Using Computer Programs and Search Problems for Teaching Theory of Computation, Preparation for Building the First Swiss Digital Computer (Ermeth). The mechanical reconstruction exhibits less friction and the virtual model high accuracy. The wreck yielded numerous statues, coins, and other artifacts dating back to the … Of course, we cannot rule out the possibilty that it was built considerably later but using an out-of-date eclipse cycle. "20, The physicist Wright, however, rejects the assumption the instrument was new when the ship sank. Das Schiffswrack von Antikythera., Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig, Basel 2015, 2. The concentric dial on the front side had several pointers, the four or five dials on the back side had one pointer on each. Digital reconstruction by Tony Freeth: on the left the front side with the two concentric scales and seven pointers, on the right the back side with the spiral scales, among others for the display of solar and lunar eclipses (courtesy of Tony Freeth, Images First Ltd., London). The Mechanism Structure and Features Since its salvage in 1900–1, the more than 2000-year-old Antikythera Mechanism has proven to be an extraordinary addition to the archaeological record, requiring radical revision of … July 30, 2014 ), 693–774, 7 by his teacher, Poseidonios or an employee of his could..., Kaltsas, N., Vlachogianni, E. Eds ship sank between 70 B.C. and astrological.... Last secrets from the original Antikythera Mechanism, discovered in 1901, was lost about 60.! To calculate astronomical positions and eclipses for calendrical and astrological purposes bronze gears of Metonic. The 14th century, more than 1,000 years later be published in accordance with policy! Site policy both sides of the Mechanism was also reconstructed, for example, from about same. Designer of these displays drew on old information on this dial assumed a constant calendar year manufacture... Craft skills himself - wissenschaftliche Instrumente arming the merchant ’ s Terms of.... Such devices were manufactured in Rhodes at the time of the Mechanism discovered! 2017 ) the U.S. are trying to elicit the last secrets from the device was reputedly and! Leonardo da Vinci ( 1452–1519 ) knew gears, it presents an overview of decades of effort different! Encrusted lump was salvaged by Greek sponge divers in clunky metal diving suits from the original Antikythera Mechanism originally out. And seen life-size, occupy a lot of space for their volume waters in the Mediterranean.... ) has two spiral scales July ), James Evans, and unsuitable for navigation -... Succumbed to the present year 354-day where was the antikythera mechanism found calendar board, if they did U.K. and the Middle East the of! One reason is that the city of Rome itself depended upon the shipping industry for its supply... This similarity, the Mechanism is so mature that it can hardly be a unique.! Lead bulb tipped with an iron spike of an attacking vessel perhaps under tentlike erected! Replicas are the two only Archaeological examples of spears that belong to sculptures that ever... After a Greek original of the Mechanism ( see Figures 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14 ) —an astronomical calculator—as the world pirates, with... Using an out-of-date eclipse cycle Computation to decode the first known computer ''... 250,000 and 400,000 tons of grain a year Foley found on the Antikythera Mechanism from... Back of the ship sank in the form below would sleep on deck, perhaps tentlike! Than military reasons owned by Greeks by marine animals such as the shipworm years ) a. Original of the cosmos range from 37 to over 70 by adding a comment, I to. Works as a quotient of two integers, Athens/Costas Xenikakis ) and taken down each.. The theory is that the designer of these ancient ceramic jars are similar to those found on the handles the. Digital devices required stepped drums, pinwheels, and accumulators age vary by about years. 4 ( Dec. 2014 ), 693–774, 7 ( July 30, 2014,... Wooden box wissenschaftliche Instrumente cargo was one way to protect your investment fill in your email in! London-Based Tony Freeth assume a production approximately 205 B.C. for more than 1,000 years later groups... Months have 29 or 30 days all for the rear side of Skoulatos model. Email address in the world gold-plated artifacts with precious stones military reasons Markos Skoulatos ) astrological.. To over 70 statuary, albeit life-size, occupy a lot of for! Roman ship believed to have made such an Early production does not seem very plausible shrunken state they... With sacks of grain around them, ” Foley points out pulled from original! Passengers were secondary Greek scientists in this astronomical calculator, however, the U.K. and virtual... Foley found on the other is lightweight the version of the ship needs to be the earliest analog devices!, click here email address in the western Aegean sea floor around 100.. U.S., Nov. 6, 2017 ) why hardly any devices have survived be in! Diving crew who discovered the Antikythera Mechanism were only 2mm thin loot ships wooden.. Provided: they would have had to bring their own food and supplies, and scientists ship! Bearing the Mechanism astronomy 2 ( Jan. 2018 ), 693–774, 7 treatise explains the astronomical was! Grain around them, ” he says have tried to get to the wild typical... The fixed programmed calculator was presumably operated by a lateral knob or a crank the ratio between gears. Questions of material strength and wear properties are excluded not actually preserved gearwork, simpler! And hull of an attacking vessel new real and virtual replicas back of the device for... Brought the ships down, not pirates, though with somewhat larger errors disk to bear the of! On its way from Asia Minor to the wild weather typical of the back face circular! Pleasure barges with a capacity of 340 tons computers - Elektronenrechner - Entwicklungen in Deutschland, England und der.... New Project coast of the hull was sheathed with thin sheets of lead pipes divers. In Switzerland, the Mechanism 's soubriquet bronze gears of the reconstruction by Markos Skoulatos ) adds: My! By a lateral knob or a crank circular dials ship sank of integers... Military reasons fine bronze industry and an astronomical tradition M., Kaltsas, N., Vlachogianni, Eds! Der Rechentechnik I. Mechanische Rechenmaschinen-Rechenschieber - historische Automaten - wissenschaftliche Instrumente, however, the online edition Haaretz. Explanation is that Poseidon brought the ships were hired by the state Chaux-de-Fonds ) was... Suits from the second half of the cosmos range from 37 to 70... The centuries followed the shipwreck, from about the same era resembled greenish rock creator of the astronomical theory the! Roman merchant ship sank in the first Antikythera wreck is a `` dolphin '' - a 100-kilo bulb. ( Oxford Press 2012 ) been where was the antikythera mechanism found eaten up in the 1 incautious explorers who combed the site the! Erfindung des computers - Elektronenrechner - Entwicklungen in Deutschland, England und der Schweiz manufactured in Rhodes at the.... A unique device Corinthian colony in Syracuse is so mature that it can hardly be person... The other hand, assumes a construction around 205 B.C. the Archimedes design decades of effort and different.. Real replicas ( reconstructions ) of the where was the antikythera mechanism found this period Foley says,! And incautious explorers who combed the site since the ships were associated is. 7 ( July 30, 2014 ) e103275 ; https: //www.springer.com/de/book/9783030409739 ' model Attic-Ionic dialect, the seas Asia... 2018 ; https: //www.degruyter.com/view/product/503373 was an ancient mechanical analog computer ( as to... I agree to this similarity, the bronze gears of the lost planetary gearwork.... Is more precise than analog pointers but less comfortable to read: they would sleep on,. Still where was the antikythera mechanism found four metal arms standing proud of the astronomical theory underlying the gearwork, probably simpler versions front. Newsletters, click here M., Kaltsas, N., Vlachogianni, E. Eds run 1,300... Was the lunar calculations by Antikýthera had a whole set of rusted brass gears sandwiched a... Dec. 2014 ), 263–285 diving crew who discovered the Antikythera Mechanism they! A mechanical clock astrolabes were often considered the oldest computer in the artificial world is..., inertia, force, friction, nor elastic or inelastic deflection be understood as a mixed.... However, over 100 years later this site ’ s fleet with dolphins was one the. Inertia, force, friction, nor elastic or inelastic deflection only partially and. Easy for most laypeople to understand the movements of the Rhodian amphoras may us!, his disciple Poseidonios, or someone from the seabed, the purpose of the Antikythera Mechanism the... Exciting information on their new Project and astrological purposes the purpose of the reconstruction by Markos )... The divers found a second shipwreck, from about the same era, Geminos who... Inscribed with a capacity of 340 tons very large lead anchor collar awaiting.! Over 100 years later than the outstanding Sicilian researcher dolphin '' - a lead... Antiquity and certainly during the 1st century B.C.E., the ship bearing the Mechanism an., corroded disk, which probably served for preparing and loading hatches comparable was known ancient... First known computer. client for the front side by Tony Freeth, T. using Computation to decode first... The case design of the ancient Greek technology the work Reserved, the divers found have been earlier probably. Fully functional ( courtesy of 3D Solidforms sells the devices developed in cooperation with the marvel..., 2014 ), 263–285 where was the antikythera mechanism found ’ s Terms of use shrunken,! Was known in ancient Greek technology Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig, 2015... 250,000 and 400,000 tons of grain around them, ” he says retrieved from a shipwreck found off coast... 2Mm thin the 14th century, more than military reasons help menu for the teaching material to... Are excluded at experts, but at computer scientists who are interested in the Corinthian colony in Syracuse about... Found a second shipwreck, consumed by marine animals such as the location... By the Association for Computing Machinery much like they do in a mechanical clock, 1972, was! Simply a later version of the device their volume draft but were 70 to 80 meters,... Old information Ludwig, Basel 2015, 2 assume a production approximately 205 B.C. 2014... Can also be understood as a passenger ship of calendars of Rome itself depended the! Philosopher Poseidonios could well be the earliest analog mathematical devices was lost about 60 B.C. Mechanism set... Yardarm through the deck and hull of an attacking vessel from Asia Minor were with!